Resource types (and resources, which are the real-world instance of a resource type) are things. They can be physical (like a fermenter, reagent, or vial) or abstract things (like a data object, e.g., a "study design"). In other words, resource types are the “nouns”. They’re pretty much the same thing as Minecraft resources!
On the other hand properties represent the attributes of things. I.e. they are the “adjectives” that describe the characteristics of a noun. Properties can also store settings or measured values when the process is run in an experiment. Properties always need to be associated with a resource type. They cannot stand on their own, just as an adjective without a noun is pretty useless.
Just to make your head spin (sorry, but the real-world is kinda complicated), there is a third part of speech that Riffyn uses. It's called a component. A component is used to make a resource a bit more specific. For example, glucose may be used as a component of a solution. And the concentration of glucose is a property of that component. In our grammatical analogy, a component is an attributive noun (yes, really - see here in Merriam-Webster's dictionary).